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Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases

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This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization or of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

WHO Technical Report Series 916
Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation

Table of Contents

Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases


1. Introduction


2. Background

2.1 The global burden of chronic diseases
2.2 The double burden of diseases in the developing world
2.3 An integrated approach to diet-related and nutrition-related diseases

3. Global and regional food consumption patterns and trends

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Developments in the availability of dietary energy
3.3 Availability and changes in consumption of dietary fat
3.4 Availability and changes in consumption of animal products
3.5 Availability and consumption of fish
3.6 Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables
3.7 Future trends in demand, foodavailability and consumption
3.8 Conclusions

4. Diet, nutrition and chronic diseases in context

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases through the life course
4.2.1 Fetal development and the maternal environment
4.2.2 Infancy
4.2.3 Childhood and adolescence
4.2.4 Adulthood
4.2.5 Ageing and older people
4.3 Interactions between early and later factors throughout the life course
4.3.1 Clustering of risk factors
4.3.2 Intergenerational effects
4.4 Gene-nutrient interactions and genetic susceptibility
4.5 Intervening throughout life

5. Population nutrient intake goals for preventing diet-related chronic diseases

5.1 Overall goals
5.1.1 Background
5.1.2 Strength of evidence
5.1.3 A summary of population nutrient intake goals

5.2 Recommendations for preventing excess weight gain and obesity
5.2.1 Background
5.2.2 Trends
5.2.3 Diet, physical activity and excess weight gain and obesity
5.2.4 Strength of evidence
5.2.5 General strategies for obesity prevention
5.2.6 Disease-specific recommendations

5.3 Recommendations for preventing diabetes
5.3.1 Background
5.3.2 Trends
5.3.3 Diet, physical activity and diabetes
5.3.4 Strength of evidence
5.3.5 Disease-specific recommendations

5.4 Recommendations for preventing cardiovascular diseases
5.4.1 Background
5.4.2 Trends
5.4.3 Diet, physical activity and cardiovascular disease
5.4.4 Strength of evidence
5.4.5 Disease-specific recommendations

5.5 Recommendations for preventing cancer
5.5.1 Background
5.5.2 Trends
5.5.3 Diet, physical activity and cancer
5.5.4 Strength of evidence
5.5.5 Disease-specific recommendations

5.6 Recommendations for preventing dental diseases
5.6.1 Background
5.6.2 Trends
5.6.3 Diet and dental disease
5.6.4 Strength of evidence
5.6.5 Disease-specific recommendations

5.7 Recommendations for preventing osteoporosis
5.7.1 Background
5.7.2 Trends
5.7.3 Diet, physical activity and osteoporosis
5.7.4 Strength of evidence
5.7.5 Disease-specific recommendations

6. Strategic directions and recommendations for policy and research

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Policy principles for the promotion of healthy diets and physical activity
6.3 Prerequisites for effective strategies
6.3.1 Leadership for effective action
6.3.2 Effective communicationa
6.3.3 Functioning al liances and partnerships
6.3.4 Enabling environments
6.4 Strategic actions for promoting healthy diets and physical activity
6.4.1 Surveillance of people’s diets, physical activity and related disease burden
6.4.2 Enabling people to make informed choices and take effective action
6.4.3 Making the best use of standards and legislation
6.4.4 Ensuring that “healthy diet” components are available to all
6.4.5 Achieving success through intersectoral initiatives
6.4.6 Making the best of health services and the professionals who provide them
6.5 Call to action


Annex. Summary of the strength of evidence for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, dental disease and osteoporosis

Selected WHO publications of related interest

Back cover

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