Introducing a vaccine:
Policy and Programme Considerations
Overview of this resource
This site provides resources useful to address policy and programmatic aspects of introducing a new vaccine. It may be used as a reference for decision-making and implementation by country level policy-makers, national immunization programme managers, and others working on immunization.
Guidance on vaccine introduction
To assist national policy-makers with whether a vaccine should be added to a national immunization programme and to assist immunization programme managers with how to introduce a vaccine, WHO has developed a general vaccine introduction document which covers the key issues that should be addressed when considering and implementing a new vaccine. The document includes information useful to ensure smooth introduction of a new vaccine, monitor implementation, evaluate impact, calculate vaccine supplies, and manage the cold chain.
WHO has also developed vaccine-specific documents with information useful for policy and programme decisions for introduction for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), rotavirus and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Introduction information for pneumococcal vaccines are currently being developed. Updated information on introduction of rotavirus and HPV vaccines are also underway.
Introduction of pneumococcal vaccines into national immunization programmes (update pending)
- Introduction of rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programmes (update pending)
- Preparing for the introduction of HPV vaccines: Policy and programme guidance to countries (update pending)
WHO recommendations for routine immunization - summary tables and position papers
In order to assist programme managers with developing optimal national immunization schedules, WHO has compiled key information on current routine immunization recommendations into two summary tables.
In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO publishes a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and vaccine combinations against diseases that have an international public health impact.
List of WHO prequalified vaccines
For countries which use WHO prequalified vaccines and wish to know the list of prequalified vaccines and vaccine product characteristics, please click on the link below to go to the list of WHO prequalified vaccines. Using the list, one may perform a filterable search of vaccine type, manufacturer or country of manufacture. For each vaccine, one may also access a product page, with details of presentation, an image of the vaccine container and a link to the product insert.
UNICEF Vaccine price website
Website which provides an overview of historic vaccine prices contracted with suppliers by UNICEF.
UNICEF-procured vaccine products and presentations with weighted average prices
For an overview of vaccine products and presentations with weighted average prices that are routinely procured by UNICEF, please see the Vaccine Projections spreadsheet:
For an overview of vaccine products and presentations with weighted average prices that are routinely procured by UNICEF on behalf of GAVI-eligible countries, please see the Product Menu for Vaccines Supplied by UNICEF for GAVI:
For general information on how to do immunization service delivery at the health facility and district level, WHO has a practical resource document which covers the following topics: cold chain, safe injections, planning and holding immunization sessions, monitoring and using immunization data, and building community support for immunization.
In practicing immunization, the number of vaccine doses used is always higher than the number of persons actually immunized. The excess number represents doses lost. The link below provides information on how to calculate vaccine wastage.
Immunization Financing Toolkit
The Immunization Financing Toolkit is a series of short briefs on different options for financing national immunization programs and vaccines. It is intended to serve as a resource for program managers and decision makers in ministries of health, planning, and finance. The Toolkit brings together the most up-to-date knowledge on the characteristics of various types of financing mechanisms as well as information on how the mechanisms are being implemented in practice, their potential benefits, and their limitations. Where possible, case studies on specific financing options are included.
- Results from evaluations of models and cost-effectiveness tools to support introduction decisions for new vaccines need critical appraisal
Last updated : 6 June 2011