Patient safety

Individual tools


Notes

The format of each tool is noted above. These include questionnaires, guidelines and checklists. The language of the tool is also listed. You will find a direct link, where available, to any measurement tools that are readily available at no cost. The setting or industry in which the tools can be used is also described. Most of the tools would be most appropriately used in health-care settings. Some tools can be used in almost all types of settings/industries and are therefore labelled "general".

One of the most important factors in evaluating these measurement tools was to determine their applicability and suitability for use in developing countries. In order to determine their applicability, the pilot study for each tool was examined. If the pilot study was conducted in a developed country, the measurement tool was deemed applicable only for use in developed countries. If the pilot study was conducted in a developing country, the measurement tool was deemed applicable only for use in developing countries.

The World Health Organization (WHO) does not warrant that this information is complete and correct, and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred as a result of its use. WHO does not endorse the content of any tool listed, any recommendations listed therein, nor any organization mentioned above.

Situation Awareness

Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT)

SAGAT was developed for commercial pilot use, but may be adapted to suit health-care professionals. As an objective, diagnostic and sensitive metric, SAGAT is highly validated for use in a wide variety of applications. It has been successfully used to directly and objectively measure operator sitation awareness in evaluating avionics concepts, display designs and interface technologies.

Format: Simulation tool, questionnaire
Language: English
Setting: Aviation
Applicability: Developed world

Situational Awareness in Effective Command and Control (Derek J. Smith)

An overview of research on situational awareness and figures to illustrate how the concept works.

Format: Paper, overview
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Situation Awareness for Medical Systems

SA Technologies has worked with medical device companies to design advanced interfaces to support the high levels of situation awareness required by health-care professionals.

Format: Tool-design service
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Royal Aeronautical Society (conference on situation awareness)

Papers from a 2001 conference presented by the Human Factors Group of The Royal Aeronautical Society in collaboration with the UK Ergonomics Society.

Decision-making

Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA)

CTA is a set of methods to understand cognitive skills required for particular tasks. See for example Critical Decision Method (CDM) Interviews: Here the interviewee is asked to describe in detail an event in past employment involving a key decision. The interviewer subsequently analyses this to identify the decision-making skills required. (See Crandall et al (2006) Working Minds).

Format: Book
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Tactical Decision Games

Simulators are not available for all work environments. Instead, other decision training techniques have been developed for computer-based or paper-based delivery. One particular method suitable for many professional groups is Tactical Decision Games. This is a facilitated simulation using brief written scenarios ranging in complexity. It is designed to exercise non-technical skills, especially those related to decision-making (see Crichton, Flin & Rattray, 2000 for workplace adaptations).

Format: Simulations
Language: English
Setting: Adaptable
Applicability: Developed world

Stress

Health & Safety Executive, United Kingdom

List of resources dealing with work-related stress and how to combat this.

Format: Website
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Stress Indicator Tool

Management standards covering the six primary sources of stress at work. If not properly managed, these are associated with poor health and well-being, lower productivity and increased sickness absence.

Format: Guideline
Language: English, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Farsi, Gujarati, Hindi, Hungarian, Kurdish, Pashto, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Spanish, Tamil, Turkish, Urdu, Welsh
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Occupational stress information

The mission of the National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health's research programme on work organization and stress-related disorders is to eliminate occupational stress, diseases, injuries, and fatalities in the workforce. This is being done through a focused programme of research and prevention to address work organization risk factors for these outcomes.

Format: Website, organization
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

International Labour Organization (ILO)

Information and resources from the ILO Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment.

Format: Website
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Fatigue

Fatigue and Risk Indicator Calculator

Developed by the Health &Safety Executive in the United Kingdom, this tool calculates levels of risk relating to fatigue for different work patterns.

Format: Risk calculator
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Fatigue and sleep management

Information from the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation.

Format: Brochure
Language: English
Setting: Aviation
Applicability: Developed world

Centre for Sleep Research (Australia)

Expertise in the areas of human sleep, biological rhythms, sleep disorders, workplace fatigue, shiftwork, fatigue modelling and risk management.

Format: Website, organization
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Loughborough Sleep Research Centre

The Centre's interests include applied, basic and clinical research. Sleepiness and daytime wellbeing are common underlying themes.

Format: Website
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

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