Patient safety

Organizational tools


Notes

The format of each tool is noted above. These include questionnaires, guidelines and checklists. The language of the tool is also listed. You will find a direct link, where available, to any measurement tools that are
readily available at no cost. The setting or industry in which the tools can be used is also described. Most of the tools would be most appropriately used in health-care settings. Some tools can be used in almost all types of settings/industries and are therefore labelled "general". .

One of the most important factors in evaluating these measurement tools was to determine their applicability and suitability for use in developing countries. In order to determine their applicability, the pilot study for each tool was examined. If the pilot study was conducted in a developed country, the measurement tool was deemed applicable only for use in developed countries. If the pilot study was conducted in a developing country, the measurement tool was deemed applicable only for use in developing countries.

These links are provided for information only. The World Health Organization (WHO) does not warrant that this information is complete and correct, and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred as a result of its use. WHO does not endorse the content of any tool listed, any recommendations listed therein, nor any organization or product mentioned above.

Safety culture

Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture: (AHRQ, Sorra & Nieva, 2004)

42 item questionnaire measuring 12 dimensions for both clinical and non-clinical staff, at unit and management levels in hospitals. This has been widely used in the USA and European countries with scientific reports beginning to emerge. Versions are available for different settings such as nursing homes.

Format: Questionnaire
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Safety Attitudes Questionnaire: (Sexton et al, 2006)

60 item questionnaire which measures dimensions including teamwork, management, and working conditions. Different versions for intensive care units, operating rooms, wards, clinics, etc. Available without charge for non-commercial purposes (registration is required).

Format: Questionnaire
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

MaPSaF Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework (Kirk et al, 2007)

Instead of questionnaires, another method of assessing safety culture is based on a card sorting and discussion task. The MaPSaF Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework is designed for work teams to self-reflect on their culture. The tool is available for pharmacy and primary care, as well as hospital settings.

Format: Self-evaluation, educational exercise
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Leadership

Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)

45 item questionnaire with four dimensions (Transformational, Transactional, Laissez-Faire Leadership and Outcomes of Leadership, such as Effort, Effectiveness and Satisfaction) (see Bass, 1998). Available in a number of languages at a charge.

Format: Questionnaire
Language: Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese, Croatian, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Protuguese, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Urdu
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ)

New model of leadership based on values (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). Available free to researchers in exchange for data.

Format: Questionnaire
Language: Multiple by request
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI)

Measures five key leadership practices (Kouzes & Posner, 2008). Available at a charge only.

Format: Guidelines, training materials, assessment instruments, workbooks
Language: Spanish and English. Multiple by request
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Seeing Yourself as Others See You

A tool for self/upward appraisal of a managers’ safety leadership.

Format: Questionnaire, guideline
Language: English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

NHS Leadership Qualities Framework (LQF)

The LQF is based on 15 qualities which are arranged in three clusters labelled personal, cognitive and social. It also has a 360 degree assessment tool (available at a cost) which can be used for self, upward or peer appraisal.

Format: Guidelines, assessment tools
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Leadership Guide for Patient Safety

Describes eight steps for senior healthcare managers (Botwinick et al., 2006) e.g. engage strategic priorities, communicate, track performance.

Format: Guideline
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Strategies for Leadership. Hospital Executives and their Role in Patient Safety

Self-assessment tool for senior healthcare managers to guide activities for improving safety within their organizations.

Format: Self-assessment tool
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Patient Safety Leadership WalkRounds guide

An implementation manual designed to give providers step-by-step guidance in putting this culture change tool into practice.

Format: Data collection tool
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Communication

Handover (Handoff) Tools

Web-based tool kit that provides resources to guide perioperative professionals in standardizing hand-off communications among caregivers.

Format: Guidelines, recommendation, checklists, PPT presentations
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

"Do Not Use" List

Abbreviations which can cause communication errors.

Format: List
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed/developing world

Safety Briefing Tool and SBAR Tool

The SBAR (Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation) technique provides a framework for communication between members of the health care team about a patient's condition.

Format: Guidelines, worksheets, scripts
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Safe Handover: Safe Patients

Guidance on clinical handover for clinicians and managers.

Format: Guideline
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

WHO Surgical Safety Checklist

The WHO Surgical Safety Checklist can increase compliance with standards and decrease complications from surgery through pre-and post-operative team briefings.

Format: Checklist, implementation manual
Language: Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed/developing world

DASH Debriefing Tool

The DASH tool evaluates the strategies and techniques used to conduct debriefings by examining concrete behaviors. The tool is designed to allow assessment of debriefings from a variety of disciplines and courses, varying numbers of participants, and a wide range of educational objectives, as well as a range of physical and time constraints.

Format: Assessment tools
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Team Self Review

TSR provides teams with techniques for structured discussion to help them assess their teamwork and performance, and to help them identify where they can improve, what actions they can take, and what lessons can be shared. The TSR techniques can be used to assess team tasks in the future, present or past.

Format: Guidelines, briefing cards
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

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