Patient safety

Team tools


Notes

The format of each tool is noted above. These include questionnaires, guidelines and checklists. The language of the tool is also listed. You will find a direct link, where available, to any measurement tools that are readily available at no cost. The setting or industry in which the tools can be used is also described. Most of the tools would be most appropriately used in health-care settings. Some tools can be used in almost all types of settings/industries and are therefore labelled "general".

One of the most important factors in evaluating these measurement tools was to determine their applicability and suitability for use in developing countries. In order to determine their applicability, the pilot study for each tool was examined. If the pilot study was conducted in a developed country, the measurement tool was deemed applicable only for use in developed countries. If the pilot study was conducted in a developing country, the measurement tool was deemed applicable only for use in developing countries.

The World Health Organization (WHO) does not warrant that this information is complete and correct, and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred as a result of its use. WHO does not endorse the content of any tool listed, any recommendations listed therein, nor any organization mentioned above.

Teamwork

Team Climate Assessment Measure Programme

The Team Climate Assessment Measure (TCAM) programme measures teamwork, particularly behaviours essential to the maintenance of patient safety and effective patient safety incident management in clinical settings. It also gives staff the opportunity to improve on their team working.

Format: Questionnaire/developed sessions
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Team Self Review (TSR)

TSR provides teams with techniques for structured discussion to help them assess their teamwork and performance, and to help them identify where they can improve, what actions they can take, and what lessons can be shared. The TSR techniques can be used to assess team tasks in the future, present or past.

Format: Structured briefing/de-briefing
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire (T-TAQ)

T-TAQ was designed to measure individual attitudes related to the core components of teamwork that are captured within TeamSTEPPS. Specifically, individual attitudes toward team structure, leadership, mutual support, situation monitoring, and communication are measured. The T-TAQ can be used to assess specific needs within the unit or health care institution and whether the TeamSTEPPS intervention produced the desired attitude change.

Format: Questionnaire
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Podcasts on Teamwork by Professor Michael West (Aston Business School)

This podcast is one of a series of leadership master class podcasts made for the NHS Education South Central Strategic Health Authority. In the podcast Professor Michael West talks about key principles for effective teams in health care.

Format: Podcast
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Oxford Non-Technical Skills (NOTECHS)

The NOTECHS scale was developed from an aviation instrument for assessment of non-technical skills. Consultation with experts and task analysis led to modifications reflecting the complexities of the theatre teamwork, particularly the coexistence of three subteams (surgeons, anaesthetists and nurses).

Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS)

ANTS (Fletcher, et al, 2003) was designed for anaesthetists to measure anaesthetists’ non-technical skills during operations in four categories: teamwork, task management, situation awareness, decision-making.

Format: Rating forms, handbooks, guidelines
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS)

NOTSS (Yule et al, 2006) was designed for surgeons to measure an individual surgeon’s non-technical skills during surgery. NOTSS uses four categories: communication and teamwork, situation awareness, decision-making, task management.

Format: Videos, rating systems
Language: English
Setting: Health care
Applicability: Developed world

Team Leadership

Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ)

The LOQ (Fleishman 1967) measures team-focused and task-focused behaviours in supervisors.

Format: Questionnaire
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Perceptions of supervisory behaviours for safety (Zohar & Luria 2005)

Questionnaire on supervisors’ prioritisation of safety versus work goals.

Format: Questionnaire
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Improve Supervision Training Guide

The guide provides support to supervisors in the field with tools to solve typical supervisory problems and on-the-job training tips to improve supervision.

Format: Brochure, PPT presentations, flipcharts, handouts
Language: English
Setting: General
Applicability: Developed world

Share