Selected bibliography supporting the ten essential objectives for safe surgery
Surgical care is complex and involves dozens of steps that must be optimized for individual patients. In order to effectively minimize unnecessary loss of life and serious complications, operative teams have ten basic and essential objectives in any surgical case, which the WHO Safe Surgery Guidelines aim to support:
- 1. The team will operate on the correct patient at the correct site.
- 2. The team will use methods known to prevent harm from anesthetic administration, while protecting the patient from pain.
- 3. The team will recognize and effectively prepare for life-threatening loss of airway or respiratory function.
- 4. The team will recognize and effectively prepare for risk of high blood loss.
- 5. The team will avoid inducing any allergic or adverse drug reaction known to be a significant risk for the patient.
- 6. The team will consistently use methods known to minimize risk of surgical site infection.
- 7. The team will prevent inadvertent retention of instruments or sponges in surgical wounds.
- 8. The team will secure and accurately identify all surgical specimens.
- 9. The team will effectively communicate and exchange critical patient information for the safe conduct of the operation.
- 10. Hospitals and public health systems will establish routine surveillance of surgical capacity, volume, and results.
- Background reading