Public health, innovation, intellectual property and trade

Increasing access to HIV treatment in middle-income countries:

Key data on prices, regulatory status, tariffs and the intellectual property situation

World Health Organization

Increasing access to HIV treatment in middle-income countries

Publication details

Number of pages: 56
Publication date: May 2014
Languages: English
ISBN: 978 92 4 150708 0



The paper provides information on the prices paid by 20 middle-income countries for adult and paediatric formulations of antiretroviral treatments recommended by WHO. It links this information with an analysis of the intellectual property situation of the selected medicines taking into account existing license agreements as well as compulsory licenses, and includes data and general information on a number of other determinants of prices and availability of ARVs, including tariffs, markups and taxes, as well as the regulatory status.

The data show that the middle-income countries are a heterogeneous group and that procurement prices vary widely. Middle-income countries supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, including India and middle-income countries in Africa, are paying low prices for first-line and many second-line treatment regimens, comparable to those paid by low-income countries. Other middle-income countries are paying higher prices, especially for newer second line and third line treatments sourced from originator producers.

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