Full document: Global Strategy for Women's and Children's health
1 “Levels & Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2010.” United Nations Inter-Agency Group on Child Mortality Estimation. Maternal estimates from United Nations inter-agency estimates based on 2010 data.
2 “Levels & Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2010.” United Nations Inter-Agency Group on Child Mortality Estimation.
3 African Union 15th Assembly Declaration: “Actions on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Development in Africa by 2015”. July 2010. Assembly/AU//Decl.1(XI)Rev.1.
4 United Nations Human Rights Council resolution 11/8. “Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity and human rights”. June 2009. http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/HRC/resolutions/A_HRC_ RES_11_8.pdf.
5 Horton S, Shekar M, McDonald C, Mahal A, Brooks JK. “Scaling up Nutrition: What will it Cost?”. World Bank. Washington DC. 2010.
6 “USAID Congressional Budget Justification FY2002: program, performance and prospects – the global health pillar”. United States Agency for International Development. Washington DC. 2001.
7 Horton S, Shekar M, McDonald C, Mahal A, Brooks J. “Scaling up Nutrition: What will it Cost?” World Bank. Washington DC. 2010.
8 “Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Network for Asia and the Pacific. Investing in maternal, newborn and child health – the case for Asia and the Pacific.” World Health Organization and The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health. Geneva. 2009.
9 Frost J, Finer L, Tapales A. “The Impact of Publicly Funded Family Planning Clinic Services on Unintended Pregnancies and Government Cost Savings”. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 19, pp778–796. 2008.
10 Mills A and Shillcutt S. “Copenhagen Consensus Challenge paper on Communicable Diseases”. 2004.
11 United Nations. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. “General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health” 2000. E/C.12/2000/4. Constitution of the World Health Organization. July 22, 1946. Basic Documents. Forty-fifth edition supplement. October 2006. http://www.who.int/ governance/eb/who_constitution_en.pdf.
12 Singh S, Darroch J, Ashford L, Vlassoff M. “Adding It Up: The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Family Planning and Maternal and Newborn Health”. Guttmacher Institute and UNFPA. 2010.
13 Save the Children. “State of the World’s Mothers 2007. Saving the Lives of Children Under 5”. http://www.savethechildren.org/ publications/mothers/2007/SOWM-2007-final.pdf. Campbell O, Gipson R, Issa AH, Matta N, El Deeb B, El Mohandes A, Alwen A, Mansour E. National maternal mortality ratio in Egypt halved between 1992-93 and 2000. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Jun. 83(6).462-71.
14 PAHO. http://www.paho.org/english/dd/pin/ePersp001_news04. htm. March 2008.
15 All examples in this section come from the Global Strategy’s “Innovation Working Group Report” available on the PMNCH website: www.pmnch.org
16 Janani Suraksha Yojana. A conditional cash transfer scheme to promote institutional delivery.
17 Lim SS, Dandona L, Hoisington JA, James SL, Hogan MC, Gakidou E. “India’s Janani Suraksha Yojana, a conditional cash transfer programme to increase births in health facilities: an impact evaluation”. Lancet. 375: 2009–23. 2010.
18 Estimates from the International Telecommunication Union (UN Agency) available at http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/connect/flagship_ initiatives/mHealth.html.
19 Rowe AK. “Potential of integrated continuous surveys and quality management to support monitoring, evaluation and the scale-up of health interventions in developing countries.” Am J Trop Med Hyg 2009;80:971-9.
20 The Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems conducted a detailed analysis of around 100 existing innovative financing mechanisms to assess their potential use to strengthen health systems, and developed a priority list of 24 mechanisms. “More Money for Health and More Health for the Money”. Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems. 2009. “Constraints to Scaling Up and Costs: Working Group 1 Report”. Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems. 2009.
21 Paris Declaration, the Accra Agenda for Action and the Monterrey Consensus.
22 This represents funds committed through the expanded IFFIm (GAVI-managed), and the Results Based Trust Fund managed by the World Bank. This funding has been supported by the governments of Norway, UK and Australia.
23 This channel will use both joint assessment and a harmonized financial management framework. The joint assessment is based on an agreed set of IHP+ attributes for sound health-sector plans, which include the requirement that all relevant government and nongovernment stakeholders in country participate in the assessment. Under a harmonized financial management framework, funding from different agencies will not necessarily be pooled.
24 Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Korea, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao PDR, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
25 The estimates are based on the findings and methodology of the Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems and adapted for the Global Strategy by the Global Strategy working group on financing, chaired by the World Bank. The Taskforce estimated costs in USD (2005) using two different approaches – Scale Up One, based on the Normative Approach developed by WHO in collaboration with UNAIDS and UNFPA, and Scale Up Two, based on the Marginal Budgeting for Bottlenecks (MBB) approach developed by the World Bank and UNICEF in collaboration with UNFPA and PMNCH. For the Global Strategy, it was agreed to use a median of the Normative approach and the MBB approach to communicate size of the funding gap. In addition, the estimates were revised from a 2009-2015 timeframe to a 2011-2015. “More Money for Health and More Health for the Money”. Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems. 2009. “Constraints to Scaling Up and Costs: Working Group 1 Report”. Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems. 2009. “Constraints on Scaling Up the Health MDGs: Costing and Financial Gap Analysis”. WHO. 2009, 2010. “Health Systems for the MDGs: Country Needs and Funding Gaps”. World Bank/UNICEF/ UNFPA/PMNCH. 2009. WHO updates 2010. MBB updates 2010.
26 The estimates are calculated in US Dollars (2005 US$).
27 More information about these estimates is available in a background paper prepared by the Global Strategy working group on financing at www.pmnch.org
28 Country income classifications follow the World Bank categorizations of countries.
29 See Finance background paper at www.pmnch.org for a description of the calculation and methodology.
30 A group of countries recently committed up to US$5.6 billion to maternal, newborn and child health as part of the G8 Muskoka Initiative. This group included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the Republic of Korea, Spain and Switzerland. (http://g8.gc.ca/g8-summit/summit-documents/ g8-muskoka-declaration-recovery-and-new-beginnings/)
31 The World Bank estimates that government funding in these countries could provide at least an additional US$2 to US$3 billion between 2011 and 2015 (see Finance Working Group background paper).
32 For example, China, India, Venezuela, the Republic of Korea, Turkey and Brazil have all increased their investments in recent years.
33 The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation recently announced a new commitment to maternal, neonatal and child health, family planning and nutrition of $1.5B over 5 years. World Vision will align its health work to prioritise maternal and child health, with US $1.5 billion over the next 5 years to help priority countries improve their health systems reaching the community and household level. The White Ribbon Alliance raised a quarter of a million dollar in 2009 alone for women and children’s health.
34 See Access to Medicines website: www.accesstomedicineindex.org.
35 Estimate based on the G-20 Toronto Summit Declaration. June 26- 27, 2010.
36 This was first proposed by the WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNAIDS, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the GAVI Alliance, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the World Bank, and later adopted by participants from 80 countries in Bangkok in February 2010. The “Bangkok Call for Action on Health Information” involved participants from 80 countries discussing how to strengthen countries’ health information capacity. Five principles were adopted: transparency; good governance; capacity building and targeted investments; harmonization and integration; and future planning. These principles are based on the H8’s 2010 essay entitled: “Meeting the Demand for Results and Accountability: A Call for Action on Health Data from Eight Global Health Agencies”.
37 Includes physicians, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, community health workers and others supporting the health infrastructure in countries. This section also includes the important role of their respective health-care professional associations.
Background papers and detailed list of comments from consultations on this document: www.pmnch.org