Hunger and malnutrition
Copenhagen Consensus 2008 Challenge Paper - March 6, 2008
Sue Horton, Vice-President Academic, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo Canada
Harold Alderman, Social Protection Advisor – Africa Region World Bank, Washington DC, USA
Juan A. Rivera, Director, Center for Research in Nutrition and Health, National Institute Public Health, Mexico
“……..Despite significant reductions in income poverty in recent years, undernutrition remains widespread. Recent estimates published in the Lancet (Black et al 2008) suggest that “maternal and child undernutrition is the underlying cause of 3.5 million deaths, 35% of the disease burden in children younger than 5 years, and 11% of total global DALY’s” (Disability-Adjusted Life Years). Undernutrition can be indicated both by anthropometric indices (underweight, stunting and wasting) and with missing micronutrients in poor quality diets.
Undernutrition in turn has negative effects on income and on economic growth. Undernutrition leads to increased mortality and morbidity which lead to loss of economic output and increased spending on health. Poor nutrition means that individuals are less productive (both due to physical and mental impairment), and that children benefit less from education. The previous 2004 Copenhagen Consensus paper on the topic discusses these mechanisms in detail (Behrman, Alderman and Hoddinott, 2004, hereafter BAH 2004). Reducing undernutrition is one of the Millennium Goals (Goal 1 aims to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger), and is also a key factor underpinning several others. Achieving goals in primary education, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, and combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases all depend crucially on nutrition.
There are cost-effective interventions for improving nutrition. Section I below discusses the challenge in more detail, section II describes four priority solutions, section III undertakes more detailed economic analysis of these solutions, and the fourth and final section discusses the implications of the analysis….”
Copenhagen Consensus 2008
The best solutions to 10 of the world's biggest challenges, Copenhagen, May, 2008
CCC's core project,Copenhagen Consensus 2008 (CC08), is funded by The Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
More than 55 international economists, including 5 Nobel Laureates, will assess more than 50 solutions and assemble a list of priorities for everyone involved in solving the world's biggest challenges.
The global challenges being adressed in the Copenhagen Consensus 2008 are: Air pollution, subsidies and trade barriers, malnutrition and hunger, conflicts, terrorism, global warming, diseases, water and sanitation, education and women and development
10 Challenges – Authors
Bjorn Larsen, Consultant Guy Hutton, Project Manager Neha Khanna, Associate Professor Conflicts Paul Collier, Professor and Director Lisa Chauvat, Ph.D Håvard Hegre, Research Professor
Dean Jamison, Senior Fellow, Ph.D Prabhat Jha, Professor David Bloom, Professor
Peter F. Orazem, Professor, Ph.D Paul Glewwe, Professor H. Anthony Patrinos, Lead Economist
Gary Yohe , M.Phil, Ph.D Richard S.J. Tol, Adjunct professor Richard Richels, Director
Malnutrition and Hunger
Susan Horton, Professor, Ph.D Juan Rivera, Professor, Director Harold Alderman, Lead Economist
Sanitation and Water
Dale Whittington, Professor, Ph.D W. Michael Hanemann, Chancellor’s Professor Claudia Sadoff, Lead Economist
Subsidies and Trade Barriers
Kym Anderson, George Gollin Professor, Ph.D L. Alan Winters, Professor
Todd Sandler, Vibhooti Shukla Professor, Ph.D Daniel G. Arce, Robert D. McCallum Professor Walter Enders, Bidgood Chair of Economics & Finance
Women and Development
Elizabeth King, Research manager, Ph.D Stephan Klasen, Professor Maria Porter, Post-doctoral fellow