Quantifying environmental health impacts

Global estimates of burden of disease caused by environment and occupational risks

Water, sanitation and hygiene





Selected population attributable fractions for water, sanitation and hygiene, by sex and level of development (% DALYs), 2000a


World World World 1 1 2 2 3 3
4 4 5 5 6 6
Males Females Both sexes Males Females Males Females Males Females
Diarrhoeal diseases 88% 88% 88% 88% 88% 88% 88% 80% 80%
Schistosomiasis 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Trachoma 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Ascariasis 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Trichuriasis 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Hookworm disease 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

1:High mortality developing; 2: Low mortality developing; 3: Developed; 4: (AFR-D, AFR-E, AMR-D, EMR-D, SEAR-D); 5: (AMR-B, EMR-B, SEAR-B, WPR-B); 6: (AMR-A, EUR-A, EUR-B, EUR-C, WPR-A)

Results based on the World Health Report, 2002.

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