Field use of molluscicides in schistosomiasis control programmes: an operational manual for programme managers
The World Health Assembly has affirmed the feasibility of eliminating schistosomiasis from some Member States. The Sixty-fifth World Health Assembly in 2012 adopted resolution WHA65.21 on the elimination of schistosomiasis, urging Member States to take advantage of other ongoing activities to intensify schistosomiasis control programmes and to initiate elimination campaigns where appropriate, through strengthened health systems, preventive chemotherapy, provision of water and sanitation, as well as hygiene education and snail control. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the impact of chemical-based mollusciciding (King et al., 2015, Sokolow et al., 2016) have concluded that regular mollusciciding is likely to contribute significantly towards elimination of schistosomiasis in high-risk areas. The WHO roadmap’s new focus on “transmission control, wherever possible” (WHO, 2012a) reinforces the need to promote intermediate-host snail control to prevent schistosomiasis transmission. Hence, it is timely to reconsider snail control practices and to revisit procedures and guidelines.
This operational manual is intended to facilitate the reintroduction of practices and protocols for use of molluscicides in the field in schistosomiasis control programmes. It is complemented by guidelines on the laboratory and field testing of the efficacy of molluscicides for schistosomiasis control (WHO, 2017 [in preparation]).
The purpose of the manual is to assist programme managers with the introduction and implementation of a snail control intervention as part of an integrated schistosomiasis control and elimination program me, and as promoted by WHO’s integrated vector management approach.