Management of substance abuse

The health and social effects of nonmedical cannabis use

New WHO publication on cannabis

Front page

The report will soon be available in pdf format. Use the navigation to the right to read the report online.




1. Introduction

2. Cannabis substance profile and its health impact

2.1 What do we know?

2.1.1 Cannabis, cannabinoids, cannabis-use disorders

2.1.2 Cannabis preparations and mode of administration.

2.1.3 Changes in cannabis potency

2.1.4 Risk and protective factors

2.1.5 Short-term health effects of cannabis use

2.1.6 Long-term health effects of cannabis use

2.1.7 Approach to making causal inferences

3. Epidemiology of cannabis use, disorders and treatment

3.1 What do we know?

3.1.1 Prevalence of cannabis use Global and regional data Country examples

3.1.2 Prevalence of cannabis-use disorders

3.1.3 Treatment trends

3.1.4 Areas that require more research

4. Neurobiology of cannabis use

4.1 What do we know?

4.1.1 The psychoactive components and neurobiology of cannabis use

4.1.2 Neurobiology of long-term cannabis use

4.1.3 Neurobiology of prenatal cannabis exposure

4.1.4 Neurobiology of cannabis effects in adolescence

4.1.5 Modifiers of risk: the interplay between genetics and environment

4.1.6 Areas that require more research

5. Short-term effects of cannabis

5.1 What do we know?

5.1.1 Cognition and coordination

5.1.2 Anxiety and psychotic symptoms

5.1.3 Acute toxicity

5.1.4 Acute cardiovascular effects

5.1.5 Acute effects on lungs and airways

5.1.6 Traffic injuries and fatalities

5.1.7 Other injury (not related to driving)

5.1.8 Cannabis and the workplace

5.1.9 Areas that require more research

6. Mental health and psychosocial outcomes of long-term cannabis use

6.1 What do we know?

6.1.1 Long-term cannabis use and dependence

6.1.2 Long-term cannabis use and cognitive function

6.1.3 Long-term psychosocial consequences of adolescent cannabis use Social and educational outcomes Other illicit drug use Tobacco and alcohol use

6.1.4 Psychosis and schizophrenia

6.1.5 Other mental disorders

6.1.6 Suicide risk, ideation and attempts

6.1.7 Suicide mortality

6.1.8 Areas that require more research

7. Long-term cannabis use and noncommunicable diseases

7.1 What do we know?

7.1.1 Respiratory diseases Chronic bronchitis Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Other respiratory diseases

7.1.2 Cardiovascular diseases Stroke

7.1.3 Cancer Upper aerodigestive tract cancers Respiratory cancers Testicular cancer Other cancers

7.1.4 Areas that require more research

8. Prevention and treatment

8.1 What do we know?

8.1.1 Prevention of cannabis use Interventions targeting families Interventions in school settings Interventions targeting vulnerable youth

8.1.2 Treatment of disorders due to cannabis use Natural history of cannabis-use disorders Therapies for cannabis-use disorders Management of acute cannabis intoxication and cannabis withdrawal Relapse prevention

8.1.3 Areas that require more research

9. Conclusions

9.1 What do we know?

9.1.1 What do we know about the neurobiology of cannabis use?

9.1.2 What we know about the epidemiology of cannabis use and cannabis dependence?

9.1.3 What do we know about the short-term effects of cannabis use?

9.1.4 What do we know about the long-term effects of regular cannabis use?

9.1.5 What do we know about prevention and treatment?

9.2 Priority areas for future research

9.2.1 Substance content and prevalence

9.2.2 Neurobiology of cannabis use

9.2.3 Health consequences

9.2.4 Social costs

9.2.5 Prevention

9.2.6 Treatment