Management of substance abuse

Psychoactive substances

Good Policy and Practice in Health Education: Education sector responses to the use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs, 2017

This joint UNESCO, UNODC and WHO publication provides the context, rationale and a comprehensive conceptual framework for improved education sector responses to substance use. It presents evidence-based and promising policies and practice, including practical examples from different regions that have been shown to be effective by scientific research. It also suggests issues to consider in scaling up and sustaining effective education sector responses to substance use.

Guidelines for the identification and management of substance use and substance use disorders in pregnancy, 2014

These guidelines contain recommendations on the identification and management of substance use and substance use disorders for health care services which assist women who are pregnant, or have recently had a child, and who use alcohol or drugs or who have a substance use disorder. They have been developed in response to requests from organizations, institutions and individuals for technical guidance on the identification and management of alcohol and other substance use and substance use disorders in pregnant women, with the target of healthy outcomes for both pregnant and their fetus or infant.

ATLAS on Substance Use (ATLAS-SU): resources for the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders, 2010

The ATLAS on Substance Use provides a structured description of available prevention and treatment resources for substance use disorders in WHO regions, different income economies and the world. Chapter 1 introduces the epidemiological aspects of substance use disorders and provides information on the level of need for treatment. Chapter 2 illustrates health service resources. Data on the implementation of pharmacological treatment for substance use disorders are presented in chapter 3. Chapter 4 covers human resource aspects. Policy and legal resources are discussed in chapter 5, before concluding with resources for the prevention of substance use in chapter 6. The ATLAS report is based on a survey instrument and has been accomplished through collaboration with WHO regional and country offices, national focal points and a number of leading experts in the field of psychoactive substance use.

Disease control priorities related to mental, neurological, developmental and substance abuse disorders, 2006

This publication brings together five chapters from Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, Second Edition (DCP2), a copublication of Oxford University Press and The World Bank (Editors: Dean T. Jamison and others, 2006). These chapters cover mental disorders, neurological disorders, learning and developmental disabilities, and alcohol and illicit opiate abuse. The purpose of this special package is similar to the overall objective of the parent volume - to provide information on cost-effectiveness of interventions for these specific groups of disorders. This information should contribute to reformulation of policies and programmes and reallocation of resources, eventually leading to reduction of morbidity and mortality.

Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence, 2004

Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence provides an authoritative summary of current knowledge of the biological basis of substance use behaviours, including their relationship with environmental factors. The report focuses on a wide range of psychoactive substances, including tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. New developments in neuroscience research are discussed (e.g., mechanisms governing craving, tolerance, neuroadaptation, immunotherapies and the concept of dependence) as well the ethical implications of these developments. As the product of consultations with and contributions from many international experts and partners, the best available evidence is provided from the various schools of thought and areas of research in the field of neuroscience. Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence is targeted at individuals with more than a basic knowledge of neuroscience, including scientists from a number of disciplines. It is expected that this publication will be of interest to health care workers, clinicians, social workers, university students, science teachers and informed policy makers.

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International Guidelines for Estimating the Costs of Substance Abuse (second edition), 2003

This document presents a general framework for the development of cost estimates. Studies of the economic costs of substance abuse are described as a type of cost-of-illness study in which the impact of substance abuse on the material welfare of a society is estimated by examining the social costs of treatment, prevention, research, law enforcement and lost productivity plus some measure of the quality of life years lost, relative to a counterfactual scenario in which there is no substance abuse. A matrix of the types of costs to be considered is presented, and there is a detailed discussion of the theoretical issues involved, including: the definition of abuse, determination of causality, comparison of the demographic and human capital approaches to cost estimation, the treatment and measurement of addictive consumption, the treatment of private costs, the measurement of intangible costs, the treatment of non-workforce mortality and morbidity, the treatment of research, education, law enforcement costs, the estimation of avoidable costs and budgetary impact of substance abuse.

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What do people think they know about substance dependence, 2001

This leaflet entitled 'What do people think they know about substance dependence?' attempts to shed some light on the highly complex and at times controversial issue of substance dependence. It contains myths and facts concerning the issue and is aimed primarily at policy-makers responsible for substance dependence prevention, treatment and support programmes.

International Guidelines for the Evaluation of Treatment Services and Systems for Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders, 2000

These guidelines describe methods for the evaluation of treatment services and systems for substance use disorders. The guides are intended to be a companion resource to the WHO/UNDCP/EMCDDA workbook series on the evaluation of costs and effects of treatment for substance use disorders. The main audience is policy makers, commisioners of treatment services and treatment agency personnel who want to know more about research evaluation and commission or undertake evaluation studies. The guidelines are intended to be of particular interest for countries where research and evaluation in this area is not widely developed. The aim here is to offer a concise description of the main evaluation methods and to encourage users to adopt evaluation methods to help develop and maintain effective and efficient treatment servies and treatment systems.

Evaluation of Psychoactive Substance Use Disorder Treatment Workbook Series, 2000

This publication consists of a series of workbooks intended to educate programme planners, managers, staff and other decision-makers about the evaluation of services and systems for the treatment of psychoactive substance use disorders. The objective of this series is to enhance their capacity for carrying out evaluation activities. The broader goal of the workbooks is to enhance treatment efficacy and cost-effectiveness using the information that comes from these evaluation activities.

Costs and Effects of Treatment for Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders: A framework for evaluation, 1996

This report summarizes the proceedings of a WHO Advisory Group Meeting that discussed a global project on the evaluation of effectiveness of treatments for psychoactive substance use problems. The report also presents several recommendations aimed at improving, supporting and standardizing treatment evaluations.

Health Professional Education on Psychoactive Substance Use Issues, 1996

This document attempts to compile the major discussions and recommendations made concerning health professional education on psychoactive substance use disorders. It presents current approaches proposed by WHO to change education and training in substance use disorders to help meet the increasing demand for services and trained personnel, changes in health systems and the need for quality care for patients presenting such problems. WHO encourages use of this document as a basis for discussion and as a lever for proposing and implementing initiatives which can improve the ability of professionals to deal with the problems of psychoactive substance use at the individual, family and community levels.