Opioid overdose: preventing and reducing opioid overdose mortality
In 2012, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolution 55/7 on promoting measures to prevent drug overdose, in particular opioid overdose, called upon Member States to include effective measures to prevent and treat drug overdose in national drug policies. In that resolution, the Commission requested the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), to collect and circulate available best practices on the prevention and treatment of and emergency response to drug overdose, in particular opioid overdose, including on the use and availability of opioid receptor antagonists such as naloxone and other measures based on scientific evidence. Following the resolution, a Discussion paper titled: Opioid overdose: preventing and reducing opioid overdose mortality is being launched by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the World Health Organization to promote and enhance the Member States responses to the increasing problem of opioid overdose deaths. The discussion paper outlines the facts about opioid overdose, the actions that can be taken to prevent and treat (reverse) opioid overdose and areas requiring further investigation, whilst promoting the dissemination of best practices on the prevention and treatment of opioid overdose.
Involvement of nurses and midwives in screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, 2010
This report provides details of a review of the literature on the involvement of nurses and midwives in screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances.
Disease control priorities related to mental, neurological, developmental and substance abuse disorders, 2006
This publication brings together five chapters from Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, Second Edition (DCP2), a copublication of Oxford University Press and The World Bank (Editors: Dean T. Jamison and others, 2006). These chapters cover mental disorders, neurological disorders, learning and developmental disabilities, and alcohol and illicit opiate abuse. The purpose of this special package is similar to the overall objective of the parent volume - to provide information on cost-effectiveness of interventions for these specific groups of disorders. This information should contribute to reformulation of policies and programmes and reallocation of resources, eventually leading to reduction of morbidity and mortality.
Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence, 2004
Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence provides an authoritative summary of current knowledge of the biological basis of substance use behaviours, including their relationship with environmental factors. The report focuses on a wide range of psychoactive substances, including tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. New developments in neuroscience research are discussed (e.g., mechanisms governing craving, tolerance, neuroadaptation, immunotherapies and the concept of dependence) as well the ethical implications of these developments. As the product of consultations with and contributions from many international experts and partners, the best available evidence is provided from the various schools of thought and areas of research in the field of neuroscience. Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence is targeted at individuals with more than a basic knowledge of neuroscience, including scientists from a number of disciplines. It is expected that this publication will be of interest to health care workers, clinicians, social workers, university students, science teachers and informed policy makers.
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International Guidelines for Estimating the Costs of Substance Abuse (second edition), 2003
This document presents a general framework for the development of cost estimates. Studies of the economic costs of substance abuse are described as a type of cost-of-illness study in which the impact of substance abuse on the material welfare of a society is estimated by examining the social costs of treatment, prevention, research, law enforcement and lost productivity plus some measure of the quality of life years lost, relative to a counterfactual scenario in which there is no substance abuse. A matrix of the types of costs to be considered is presented, and there is a detailed discussion of the theoretical issues involved, including: the definition of abuse, determination of causality, comparison of the demographic and human capital approaches to cost estimation, the treatment and measurement of addictive consumption, the treatment of private costs, the measurement of intangible costs, the treatment of non-workforce mortality and morbidity, the treatment of research, education, law enforcement costs, the estimation of avoidable costs and budgetary impact of substance abuse.
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What do people think they know about substance dependence, 2001
This leaflet entitled 'What do people think they know about substance dependence?' attempts to shed some light on the highly complex and at times controversial issue of substance dependence. It contains myths and facts concerning the issue and is aimed primarily at policy-makers responsible for substance dependence prevention, treatment and support programmes.
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International Guidelines for the Evaluation of Treatment Services and Systems for Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders, 2000
These guidelines describe methods for the evaluation of treatment services and systems for substance use disorders. The guides are intended to be a companion resource to the WHO/UNDCP/EMCDDA workbook series on the evaluation of costs and effects of treatment for substance use disorders. The main audience is policy makers, commisioners of treatment services and treatment agency personnel who want to know more about research evaluation and commission or undertake evaluation studies. The guidelines are intended to be of particular interest for countries where research and evaluation in this area is not widely developed. The aim here is to offer a concise description of the main evaluation methods and to encourage users to adopt evaluation methods to help develop and maintain effective and efficient treatment servies and treatment systems.
Evaluation of Psychoactive Substance Use Disorder Treatment Workbook Series, 2000
This publication consists of a series of workbooks intended to educate programme planners, managers, staff and other decision-makers about the evaluation of services and systems for the treatment of psychoactive substance use disorders. The objective of this series is to enhance their capacity for carrying out evaluation activities. The broader goal of the workbooks is to enhance treatment efficacy and cost-effectiveness using the information that comes from these evaluation activities.
- Framework [.pdf, 131KB]
- Workbook 1: Planning [.pdf, 507KB]
- Workbook 2: Implementation [.pdf, 370KB]
- Workbook 3: Needs Assessment [.pdf, 383KB]
- Workbook 4: Process Evaluations [.pdf, 425KB]
- Workbook 5: Cost Evaluations [.pdf, 383KB]
- Workbook 6: Client Satisfaction Evaluations [.pdf, 257KB]
- Workbook 7: Outcome Evaluations [.pdf, 484KB]
- Workbook 8: Economic Evaluations [.pdf, 278KB]
- Facilitator's Manual [.pdf, 563KB]
Costs and Effects of Treatment for Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders: A framework for evaluation, 1996
This report summarizes the proceedings of a WHO Advisory Group Meeting that discussed a global project on the evaluation of effectiveness of treatments for psychoactive substance use problems. The report also presents several recommendations aimed at improving, supporting and standardizing treatment evaluations.
Health Professional Education on Psychoactive Substance Use Issues, 1996
This document attempts to compile the major discussions and recommendations made concerning health professional education on psychoactive substance use disorders. It presents current approaches proposed by WHO to change education and training in substance use disorders to help meet the increasing demand for services and trained personnel, changes in health systems and the need for quality care for patients presenting such problems. WHO encourages use of this document as a basis for discussion and as a lever for proposing and implementing initiatives which can improve the ability of professionals to deal with the problems of psychoactive substance use at the individual, family and community levels.