ATLAS on Substance Use (2010) - Resources for the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders
The ATLAS on Substance Use provides a structured description of available prevention and treatment resources for substance use disorders in WHO regions, different income economies and the world. Chapter 1 introduces the epidemiological aspects of substance use disorders and provides information on the level of need for treatment. Chapter 2 illustrates health service resources. Data on the implementation of pharmacological treatment for substance use disorders are presented in chapter 3. Chapter 4 covers human resource aspects. Policy and legal resources are discussed in chapter 5, before concluding with resources for the prevention of substance use in chapter 6. The ATLAS report is based on a survey instrument and has been accomplished through collaboration with WHO regional and country offices, national focal points and a number of leading experts in the field of psychoactive substance use.
Foreword, Contents, Acknowledgements
Introduction and Methodology
- Country profiles
Guidelines for the Psychosocially Assisted Pharmacological Treatment of Opioid Dependence
The Guidelines for the Psychosocially Assisted Pharmacological Treatment of Opioid Dependence review the use of medicines such as methadone, buprenorphine, naltrexone and clonidine in combination with psychosocial support in the treatment of people dependent on heroin or other opioids. Based on systematic reviews of the literature and using the GRADE approach to determining evidence quality, the guidelines contain specific recommendations on the range of issues faced in organizing treatment systems, managing treatment programmes and in treating people dependent on opioids.
Principles of Drug Dependence Treatment, 2008
This discussion paper, a joint UNODC-WHO document, aims to encourage governments and other partners to take concerted action for the implementation of evidence-based drug dependence treatment services, which respond to the needs of their populations.
Treatment of injecting drug users with HIV/AIDS: promoting access and optimizing service delivery, 2006
The purpose of this document is to describe approaches to enhancing the management of HIV-positive IDUs and outline issues that require consideration in the implementation of interventions for this population.
Basic Principles for Treatment and Psychosocial Support of Drug Dependent People Living with HIV/AIDS, 2006
Over the past two decades, HIV infection has been added to the serious risks of injection drug use, and the diffusion of HIV associated with drug injecting not only creates medical and social problems for the millions of injecting drug users worldwide but for society at large. Yet many drug dependent people living with HIV/AIDS do not enjoy equitable access to HIV/AIDS treatment, care and support services for HIV/AIDS as a result of stigma and discrimination, of their own reluctance to seek treatment, and of the unavailability of HIV/AIDS treatment in programmes for injecting drug users. This guidance document, built on expert advice and developed in consultation with UNAIDS, articulates the central principles for treatment and support of HIV-positive injecting drug users.
WHO/UNODC/UNAIDS position paper. Substitution maintenance therapy in the management of opioid dependence and HIV/AIDS prevention, 2004
The World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), have developed a joint position on substitution maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Based on a review of scientific evidence and oriented towards policymakers, the WHO/UNODC/UNAIDS position paper covers a wide range of issues, from the rationale for this treatment modality, to the specific considerations regarding its provision for people with HIV/AIDS.
Download the Position Paper in English
Download Flyer in English
Download the Position Paper in Russian
Download Flyer in Russian
The Practices and Context of Pharmacotherapy of Opioid Dependence in Central and Eastern Europe, 2004
This publication presents an overview of the practices and the context of pharmacotherapy of opioid dependence in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. Based on reports provided by professionals involved in the treatment of opioid dependence in these regions, this document describes the current situation with opioid use in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States, the role of pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence in public health responses to opioid dependence and associated health consequences in the region, as well as priorities and recommendations for development of treatment services and responses. The publication contains key informant reports from Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Kyrgyzstan, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russian Federation, Slovakia and Ukraine. This publication has been prepared in conjunction with another WHO document that is focused on pharmacotherapy of opioid dependence in selected countries of South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions and both documents are a part of the global activity on treatment of opioid dependence which is currently being implemented by the WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse.
The Practices and Context of Pharmacotherapy of Opioid Dependence in South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions, 2002
This publication presents an overview of the practices and the context of pharmacotherapy of opioid dependence in selected countries of the South East Asia and Western Pacific regions of WHO. It describes the current situation with opioid use and its health consequences, the role of pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence in public health responses to opioid dependence and associated health consequences in the region, as well as priorities for development of treatment responses. The publication contains key informant reports from Australia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, The Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam.
Systematic Review of Treatment for Amphetamine-Related Disorders, 2001
The ease of synthesis from inexpensive and readily available chemicals makes possible the wide-spread of amphetamine dependence and abuse. The objective of this review is to search and determine risks, benefits and costs for a variety of treatments for amphetamine dependence or abuse, psychosis and withdrawal. This review was conducted using the Cochrane Collboration standards for preparing systematic reviews.
Systematic Review of Opioid Antagonists for Alcohol Dependence, 2000
The results from animal studies suggest that opioid antagonists may prevent the reinforcing effects of alcohol consumption. This systematic review was carried out to determine the effectiveness of opioid antagonists for attenuating or preventing the recommencement of alcohol consumption in patients with alcohol dependence.
Systematic Review of Pharmacological Treatment of Cocaine Dependence, 2000
Cocaine dependence is a common and serious condition, associated with severe medical, psychological and social problems, including the spread of infectious diseases. This series of systematic reviews (conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration standards) will critically assess the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for treating cocaine dependence.
International Guidelines for the Evaluation of Treatment Services and Systems for Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders, 2000
These guidelines describe methods for the evaluation of treatment services and systems for substance use disorders. The guides are intended to be a companion resource to the WHO/UNDCP/EMCDDA workbook series on the evaluation of costs and effects of treatment for substance use disorders. The main audience is policy makers, commisioners of treatment services and treatment agency personnel who want to know more about research evaluation and commission or undertake evaluation studies. The guidelines are intended to be of particular interest for countries where research and evaluation in this area is not widely developed. The aim here is to offer a concise description of the main evaluation methods and to encourage users to adopt evaluation methods to help develop and maintain effective and efficient treatment servies and treatment systems.
Evaluation of Psychoactive Substance Use Disorder Treatment Workbook Series, 2000
This publication consists of a series of workbooks intended to educate programme planners, managers, staff and other decision-makers about the evaluation of services and systems for the treatment of psychoactive substance use disorders. The objective of this series is to enhance their capacity for carrying out evaluation activities. The broader goal of the workbooks is to enhance treatment efficacy and cost-effectiveness using the information that comes from these evaluation activities.
- Framework [.pdf, 131KB]
- Workbook 1: Planning [.pdf, 507KB]
- Workbook 2: Implementation [.pdf, 370KB]
- Workbook 3: Needs Assessment [.pdf, 383KB]
- Workbook 4: Process Evaluation [.pdf, 425KB]
- Workbook 5: Cost Evaluations [.pdf, 383KB]
- Workbook 6: Client Satisfaction Evaluations [.pdf, 257KB]
- Workbook 7: Outcome Evaluations [.pdf, 484KB]
- Workbook 8: Economic Evaluations [.pdf, 278KB]
- Facilitator's Manual [.pdf, 563KB]
Costs and Effects of Treatment for Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders: A framework for evaluation, 1996
This report summarizes the proceedings of a WHO Advisory Group Meeting that discussed a global project on the evaluation of effectiveness of treatments for psychoactive substance use problems. The report also presents several recommendations aimed at improving, supporting and standardizing treatment evaluations.
Approaches to Treatment of Substance Abuse, 1993
This report is an attempt to provide an updated description of different methods used around the world to treat health problems associated with substance use.
- Download Acknowledgements, Introduction, and I. Descriptors of Treatments [pdf 1.68MB]
- Download II. Factors Influencing Treatment [pdf 1.34MB]
- Download III. Generalist Responses to Alcohol and other Drug Problems [pdf 1.15MB]
- Download IV. Pharmacological Treatment of Dependence on Alcohol and other Drugs: An Overview [pdf 1.65MB]
- Download V. Psychological, Behavioural and Psychodynamic Treatments for Substance Abuse [pdf 2.21MB]
- Download VI. Harm Minimization, and VII. Mutual-help for the Recovery of Alcohol and Drug Abuse [pdf 2.35MB]
- Download VIII. The Role of Traditional Healing in the Management of Substance Abuse [pdf 1.60MB]
The content and structure of methadone treatment programmes: a study in six countries, 1990
This report examines the content and structure of methadone treatment programmes in six countries.