Tuberculosis (TB)

TB and HIV

A woman stands in front of a house, Lesotho.

People living with HIV are 17-22 times more likely to develop TB than persons without. TB is the most common presenting illness among people living with HIV, including among those taking antiretroviral treatment, and it is the major cause of HIV-related deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa bears the brunt of the dual epidemic, accounting for approximately 75% of all deaths from HIV-associated TB in 2015. To address HIV-related TB WHO recommends a 12 point package of collaborative TB/HIV activities. These aim to create collaboration between TB and HIV programmes, reduce the burden of TB among people living with HIV and the burden of HIV among TB patients.

fact buffet

Lives saved

6.5 millionthrough scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities from 2005-2015.

Read 10 facts on TB-HIV

HIV-positive TB cases

1.2 millionpeople living with HIV estimated to have fallen ill with TB in 2015.

Read the Global Tuberculosis Report

Deaths

0.4 millionpeople living with HIV estimated to have died from TB, a preventable and curable disease.

Read the 2016 TB-HIV fact sheet
pdf, 597kb

Key topics

Advocacy events

Despite being the major cause of HIV-related mortality, TB requires much more attention within the HIV response. Concerted efforts are needed by all parties to end deaths among people living with HIV from this preventable and curable disease. Advocacy plays a crucial role in mainstreaming TB onto the HIV agenda and vice versa, and for disseminating the latest evidence and policy

TB/HIV research

Despite progress in uptake and scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities which have had considerable impact, there is still an urgent need for research and development of new tools and regimens, as well as improved and quality delivery of integrated services. WHO has been organizing TB/HIV research frontier meetings in collaboration with partners since 2007. These data-driven meetings have served as a platform for networking to discuss novel ideas, controversies and have played a crucial role in catalysing policies and programmes.

Scale-up

As part of WHO’s role in supporting countries to better respond to HIV-associated tuberculosis, global and regional meetings and workshops have been held to foster enhanced collaboration between national TB and AIDS control programmes and other stakeholders, to share experiences and best practices in implementation, and to generate of evidence based policy and programme guidance.

WHO HIV/TB Task Force

At the recommendation of the Strategic and Technical Advisory Group for Tuberculosis and the Strategic and Technical Advisory Committee for HIV/AIDS, a WHO HIV/TB Task Force was established in 2015 to galvanise and intensify the response to HIV-associated TB. The mission of the Task Force is to advise WHO at all levels on intensifying the HIV/TB response in order to reduce new HIV-related TB infections, and to eliminate HIV-associated TB deaths in high TB and HIV burden countries and concentrated HIV epidemic settings.

People who use drugs

People who use drugs are at increased risk of TB, regardless of HIV status, with rates documented in the pre-AIDS era of over 10 times higher than among the general population. HIV further increases the risk of TB, and TB is a leading AIDS-defining illness and cause of mortality among people living with HIV who inject drugs. The convergence of viral hepatitis, HIV, TB and injecting drug use has become a major health concern and can have important implications for case management.

News, events and meetings

  • September 2016

    Regional consultation meeting to support country implementation of the top 10 indicators to monitor the End TB Strategy, programmatic management of latent TB infection and collaborative TB/HIV activities

    The WHO Global TB Programme and the department of HIV/AIDS and Global Hepatitis programme and the Global Fund Secretariat jointly organized a consultative meeting to support country implementation of the top 10 indicators to monitor the End TB Strategy, collaborative TB/HIV activities and programmatic management of latent TB infection, on 20-22 September 2016 at Nairobi, Kenya.

  • July 2016

    TB 2016 Conference

    In recognition of the need for greater attention to TB, the International AIDS Society hosted TB2016 – a two-day global conference dedicated to TB, immediately prior to AIDS 2016 in Durban, South Africa. The conference brought together scientists, researchers, policy makers and advocates, to galvanize political leadership and commitment to end TB by 2030, as set out in the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

  • July 2016

    AIDS 2016 Conference

    The International AIDS Society conference, AIDS 2016, held in Durban, South Africa from 18 to 22 July was attended by more than 18,000 delegates to discuss the global HIV response. In addition to the pre-conference, dedicated to TB, the main HIV conference included numerous sessions on HIV-associated TB, including a WHO-organized workshop to expedite the diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated TB among people living with HIV.

  • June 2016

    UN General Assembly 2016

    A WHO-organized Ministerial Panel discussion was convened prior to the opening plenary of the UN High-Level Meeting on ending AIDS on 8 June 2016. The panel discussion was convened by the UN Special Envoy on TB, Eric Goosby and opened by WHO’s Assistant Director General on HIV, TB, Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases, Ren Minghui, and Chair of the Board of the Stop TB Partnership and Minister of Health of South Africa, Aaron Motsoaledi.

  • May 2016

    TB, HIV and Malaria at the Women Deliver conference

    A symposium on the “Female Face of Communicable Diseases” was organized by WHO in collaboration with partners, at the Women Deliver Global Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark on 18th May 2016. The session aimed to raise the importance of TB, and other communicable diseases in women’s health and discussed the need for a holistic and integrated healthcare delivery model, from policy to care recipient level.

  • March 2016

    Consolidated guidelines for people who inject drugs

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk of TB, irrespective of HIV status, and TB is a leading cause of HIV-related mortality among PWID. PWID are also disproportionately affected by HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. These guidelines, released in March 2016, consolidate the latest WHO recommendations relating to the management of TB, HIV-associated TB, HIV, viral hepatitis B and C, drug dependence, as well as of alcohol dependence, malnutrition, mental illness and psycho-social needs.

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