Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a form of TB that does not respond to the standard six month regimen using first line-drugs (i.e. resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin). It can take two years to treat with drugs that are more toxic, and 100 times more expensive. If the drugs to treat MDR-TB are mismanaged, further resistance can occur.
Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria resistant to all the most effective drugs (i.e. MDR-TB plus resistance to any fluoroquinolone and any of the second-line anti-TB injectable drugs: amikacin, kanamycin or capreomycin).
Stop TB strategy
The Stop TB Strategy aims to dramatically reduce the global burden of TB by 2015, and has six components:
- pursue high-quality DOTS expansion and enhancement;
- address TB-HIV, MDR-TB, and the needs of poor and vulnerable populations; Contribute to health system strengthening based on primary health care;
- engage all care providers;
- empower people with TB, and communities through partnership;
- enable and promote research.
DOTS is the basic 5-point package that is the first component of the Stop TB Strategy:
- political commitment with adequate and sustained financing;
- early case detection and diagnosis through quality-assured bacteriology;
- standardized treatment with supervision and patient support;
- effective drug supply and management;
- monitoring and evaluation of performance and impact.