Strategic review of traps and targets for tsetse and African trypanosomiasis control
By F.A.S. Kuzoe. Formerly Manager, Steering Committees on African Trypanosomiasis, and Consultant, Product Research and Development, TDR and C.J. Schofield. ECLAT Coordinator, and Member of the PATTEC-PMC Committee
Tsetse traps and targets (insecticide-impregnated screens) function by attracting the flies to a device that collects and/or kills them. Traps can be used for entomological surveillance, and also for control. Targets are simpler than traps, but are not used for surveillance. They are impregnated with biodegradable insecticides in order to kill any flies that alight on them. Traps can also be impregnated with insecticides. Traps and targets can both be used to eliminate a fraction of the tsetse population.
Various designs of trap and target have been developed for use against specific species in particular environments. They differ in cost and maintenance requirements, and are not equally effective for all species. However, for the most significant species and groups, an adequate and field-tested design is available.
This review seeks to assess the history and design of tsetse traps and targets deployed in specific situations, and their operational and economic implications as well as apparent effectiveness in relation to both community and farm protection. The review focuses on measures to combat human trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), but draws on experience from the control of animal trypanosomiasis wherever relevant.