Trade, foreign policy, diplomacy and health

3. Tuberculosis control

Jim Yong Kim, Aaron Shakow, Arachu Castro, Chris Vande, Paul Farmer


The burden of tuberculosis: Individual health burden (2)

  • Once ‘active’, without treatment up to 2/3 die
  • Transmission occurs by inhalation of droplet nuclei: small clusters of TB bacteria aerosolized by coughing of a sick patient
  • TB is susceptible to UV light, including sunlight, so transmission facilitated by overcrowding and poor ventilation
  • Malnutrition and HIV/AIDS increase individual risk of progression from infection to active TB

Once a patient develops active disease, without treatment up to two thirds will die. Transmission occurs by inhalation of droplet nuclei-small clusters of TB bacteria aerosolized by the coughing of a sick patient. TB is susceptible to ultraviolet light, including sunlight, but transmission is facilitated by overcrowding and poor ventilation. Additionally, the transition from infection to disease is highly dependent on the integrity of the host's immune system. Malnutrition and diseases compromising immune response, especially HIV/AIDS, greatly increase an individual's risk of progression from infection to active TB disease.

Share