This happens when microbes develop ways to survive the use of medicines meant to kill or weaken them. The development of anti-microbial resistance is a natural biological phenomenon, but humans can and do increase the likelihood of it happening. This term is often used interchangeably with drug resistance.
Antibiotic use is of benefit to both humans and cattle. Resistance results from the misuse of antibiotics in both rich countries (where 75% of the use of antibiotics in humans and cattle is thought to be inappropriate) and poor countries (where the lack of controls, resources, and knowledge results in inappropriate and incorrect use). Recently, a number of treatment-resistant forms of malaria and TB have emerged.
It is argued that aspects of globalization increase the likelihood of treatment-resistant diseases emerging. For example, increased cross-border movements of people help to spread disease faster. Some analysts also blame a move towards the harmonization of treatment regimes, regardless of local conditions. On the other hand, globalization may also facilitate effective global cooperation to tackle this threat, e.g. WHO has developed a global strategy for the containment of anti-microbial resistance.