Multilateral Trade Agreements (MTAs)
These are agreements negotiated in and monitored by the World Trade Organization (WTO). While many such agreements exist, the main trade agreements relevant for public health include:
- The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
- The General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS), which covers services including health services, water and other utilities.
- The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which covers patent, copyright and trademarks on a wide assortment of products from software to medicines.
- The Agreement on Agriculture.
- The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
- The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
- The Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS), which covers the rules and practices that countries must adhere to regarding the treatment of foreign investors, including foreign investors in private health delivery and medicine production.
- The Anti-dumping Agreement.
- The Agreement on Customs Valuation.