Violence and Injury Prevention

Risk factors

As a consortium partner in the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme, WHO supports governments to address the five key risk and/or protective factors below.


Drink–driving is one of the main causes of road crashes worldwide. In high-income countries about 20% of fatally injured drivers have excess alcohol in their blood, while in some low- and middle-income countries this figure may be up to 69%.


Speed is as a key risk factor in road traffic injuries, influencing both the risk of a road traffic crash as well as the severity of the injuries that result from crashes.

Motorcycle helmets

Wearing a helmet is the single most effective way of reducing head injuries and fatalities resulting from motorcycle crashes. Helmet use decreases risk of head injuries by 70% and deaths by 40%.


Wearing a seat-belt reduces the risk of fatality among front seat passengers by 40–50% and by 25–75% for rear seat car occupants.

Child restraints

Child restraints reduce the likelihood of a fatal crash by approximately 70% among infants and 54-80% among young children.