This section aims to provide users of VMNIS with information on different biochemical indicators for assessing the prevalence of various vitamin and mineral deficiencies in populations. These documents are a compilation of current WHO recommendations on the topic from different sources. They summarize the currently recognized cut-offs for defining deficiencies and severity of deficiencies at the population level, and the chronology of their establishment.
The cut-offs included in these summaries are essential for identifying populations most at risk of deficiency and in need of intervention. They also permit both the monitoring of trends of vitamin and mineral deficiencies and the evaluation of the impact of interventions. Such assessments allow for the measurement of progress towards international goals of control and prevention of vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
- C-reactive protein concentrations as a marker of inflammation or infection for interpreting biomarkers of micronutrient status
- Goitre as a determinant of the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders in populations
- Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity
- Serum ferritin concentrations for the assessment of iron status and iron deficiency in populations.
- Serum retinol concentrations for determining the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations.
- Serum and red blood cell folate concentrations for assessing folate status in populations
- Serum transferrin receptor levels for the assessment of iron status and iron deficiency in populations
- Urinary iodine concentrations for determining iodine status in populations
- Xerophthalmia and night blindness for the assessment of clinical vitamin A deficiency in individuals and populations
- Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination
- Assessing the iron status of populations
- Iron deficiency anaemia: assessment, prevention and control
- Indicators for assessing vitamin A deficiency and their application in monitoring and evaluating intervention programmes
- Priorities in the assessment of vitamin A and iron status in populations
Conclusions of a WHO Technical Consultation on folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies