Water, sanitation and hygiene have important impacts on both health and disease.
Water-related diseases include:
- those due to micro-organisms and chemicals in water people drink;
- diseases like schistosomiasis which have part of their lifecycle in water;
- diseases like malaria with water-related vectors;
- drowning and some injuries;
- and others such as legionellosis carried by aerosols containing certain micro-organisms.
Inadequate drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene are estimated to cause 842 000 diarrhoeal disease deaths per year WHO 2014, and contribute substantially to the other diseases listed above.