Agua, saneamiento y salud (ASS)

Manejo del agua en la vivienda: beneficios acelerados para la salud derivados del abastecimiento de agua mejorado


Monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of alternative household water treatment


Hazard Vessel Type Vessel Integrity Vessel Sanitation
Critical Control Point(s) Appropriate or not appropriate, based on design Intact or not intact, based on visible damage (e.g., cracks, scratches), broken or missing parts (e.g., cap) and leaks Sanitary or nor sanitary, based on frequency of cleaning and cleaning method

Type of Treatment Source Water Hazards Source Water Critical Control Point(s) Treatment Hazards Treatment Critical Control Points
Heating to boiling with fuel Contaminated or uncontaminated? Choose best available source Inadequate temperature achieved Heat to a visible rolling boil
Solar Radiation in clear plastic bottles (heat + UV radiation or heat only) Contaminated or uncontaminated?Turbid? UV-absorbing solutes Choose best available source, with low turbidity and low UV-absorbing solutes Inadequate sunlight to achieve target temperature and UV dose Target temperature sensor (thermometer or melting wax); elapsed exposure time (timer, clock, sun position, etc.); monitor/observe weather (sunny, part sun or cloudy)
Solar radiation (cooker or reflector) in opaque vessel (heat only) Contaminated or uncontaminated? Turbid? Choose best available source, with low turbidity Inadequate sunlight to achieve target temperature Target temperature sensor (thermometer or melting wax); elapsed exposure time (timer, clock, sun position, etc.); monitor/observe weather (sunny, part sun or cloudy)
UV irradiation with lamps Contaminated or uncontaminated? Turbid? UV-absorbing solutes? Choose best available source, with low turbidity and low UV-absorbing solutes No electrical power to UV lamp; poor water quality Assure a reliable source of electrical power to UV lamp; assure adequate water quality (based on turbidity and UV-absorbing materials)
Settling; plain sedimentation Contaminated or uncontaminated? Turbid? Choose best available source, with low turbidity Poor settling of turbidity (suspended matter) Observe (monitor) for adequate turbidity (cloudiness) reduction
Filtration methods Contaminated or uncontaminated? Turbid? Choose best available source, with low turbidity Poor filtration and turbidity reduction Observe (monitor) for adequate turbidity (cloudiness) reduction
Chlorination or mixed oxidants from electrolysis of brine (NaCl) Contaminated or uncontaminated? Turbid? Chlorine-demanding solutes? Choose best available source, with low turbidity and low chlorine demand Poor chlorination due to inadequate dose and contact time Observe (monitor) for chlorine residual (C) and for adequate contact time (T), i.e., adequate CT
Combined chemical coagulation + chlorination systems Contaminated or uncontaminated? Turbid? Chlorine-demanding solutes? Choose best available source, with low turbidity and low chlorine demand Poor treatment due to inadequate turbidity removal and chlorine dose Observe (monitor) for turbidity (cloudiness) reduction and adequate CT (chlorine residual and contact time)
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