Public buildings and healthcare settings
Hospital-associated infections contribute worldwide to an important loss of resources in the health sector and to an increase of morbidity as well as to a higher mortality.1
The literature estimates that between 5 to 30 per cent of patients a year develop one or more infections during a stay in hospital. A significant percentage of these infections could be avoided. In crisis or precarious situations the number of infections worsens.
A clean environment plays an important role in the prevention of hospital-associated infections.
Many factors, including water supply, cleaning of the health-care setting environment, waste management can significantly influence the transmission of such infections. In 1997 the proportion of Legionella cases in Europe due to nosocomial infections was 16%. The total European rate for 1997 was 3.9 cases per million population. In the same year, 136 deaths were reported – an overall case-fatality rate of 10% compared with 4.9% in 1996.2
Replacement of mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers in health care
Water safety in buildings: Resource for the development of training and information material
How to integrate water, sanitation and hygiene into HIV programmes
Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings
Water, sanitation and hygiene standards for schools in low-cost settings
Essential environmental health standards for health care
Global patient safety management: Clean care is safer care
1Orrett, F.A., Brooks, P.J., Richardson, E.G. (1998). Nosocomial infections in a rural regional hospital in developing country: infection rates by site, service, cost and infection control practices. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology.
2Legionnaires’disease in Europe, 1997; WHO weekly epidemiological record n° 34; European working group for Legionella infections, PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, United Kingdom