Water sanitation hygiene

Analysis of wastewater for use in agriculture

A laboratory manual of parasitological and bacteriological techniques



Manual cover

Publication details

Editors: Ayres, Rachel M, Mara, David Duncan
Number of pages: iv + 31 pages
Publication date: 1996
Languages: English, French, Russian, Spanish ISBN: 92 4 154484 8



The use of wastewater for crop irrigation is becoming increasingly common. Resulting crop yields are higher, as wastewater contains nutrients necessary for plant growth: However, there is the risk that wastewater irrigation may facilitate the transmission of intestinal nematode infections and faecal bacterial diseases to both consumers and agricultural workers.

This laboratory manual provides a practical, step-by-step guide for the analysis of samples of treated wastewater to determine whether they comply with the quality guidelines published by WHO.

The procedures presented here are simple and effective, require a minimum of equipment, and can be carried out by persons with little or no previous parasitological or microbiological experience.

The methods include a modified Bailenger method for the enumeration of helminth eggs and two most probable number (MPN) methods and a membrane filtration method for the enumeration of faecal coliform bacteria. To aid in identification, 17 colour plates show human parasitic helminth eggs that are frequently encountered in wastewater samples. Guidance on basic laboratory skills and conducting routine wastewater monitoring programmes is also provided.

Ordering information

Sw.fr. 12.-/US $10.80; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 8.40
Order no. 1150432