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Sanitation: Controlling problems at source: Previous page | 1,2,3,4,5,6,7

Further information

  Table of contents

For further information on WHO's Water, Sanitation and Health Program: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health

Cyanobacteria

Chorus, I. and Bartram, J. (eds.), Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water, WHO 1999.

All WHO Press Releases, Fact Sheets, and Features as well as other information on this subject can be obtained on the Internet at http://www.who.int.

Ecosystems and sanitation

Abramovitz J, 1996. Imperiled waters, impoverished future: The decline of freshwater ecosystems. Washington, DC, Worldwatch Institute, p. 5-66.

Carr R and Strauss, M, 2001. Excreta-related infections and the role of sanitation in the control of transmission. In: Fewtrell L and Bartram J eds., Water-Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health - Assessment of risk and risk management for water-related infectious disease, Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001.

Drangert J-O, 2000. Reuse - The Ultimate Sink? Urine-Diverting Toilets to Protect Groundwater Quality and Fertilise Urban Agriculture. In: Chorus I, Ringelband U, Schlag G, and Schmoll O, eds. Water Sanitation & Health, London, IWA Publishing, 2000:275-280.

Esrey SA, 2000. Rethinking Sanitation: Panacea or Pandora's Box. In: Chorus I, Ringelband U, Schlag G, and Schmoll O, eds. Water Sanitation & Health, London, IWA Publishing, 2000:7-14.

Franceys R, Pickford J, and Reed R, 1992. A guide to the development of on-site sanitation. Geneva, World Health Organization.

Gardner-Outlaw T and Engleman R, 1997. Sustaining water, easing scarcity. A second update. Washington, DC Population Action International, p. 2-19.

Gwatkin DR and Guillot M, 2000. The Burden of Disease among the Global Poor: Current Situation, Future Trends, and Implications for Strategy. Washington, DC, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, p. 1-44.

Haarhoff J and van der Merwe B, 1995. 25 Years of Wastewater Reclamation in Windhoek Namibia. In: Angelakis A, Asano T, Diamadopoulos E and Tchobanoglous G eds., Second International Symposium on Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse: Symposium Preprint Book 1. Iraklio, Greece, International Association on Water Quality, p. 29-40.

Hinrichsen D, Robey B and Upadhyay UD, 1998. Solutions for a Water-Short World. Population Reports, Series M, No. 14. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University of Public Health, Population Information Program, September 1998.

Hunter P, 1997. Waterborne Disease: Epidemiology and Ecology, Chichester, John Wiley, 1997. Jönsson H, 1997. Ecological Alternatives. In: Drangert JO, Bew J, and Winblad U eds. Sanitation: Proceedings from Workshop. Sida, Balingshome, p.11-22.

Khan M, 1982 Interruption of shigellosis by handwashing. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1982, 76(2):164-168.

Kotloff KL et al., 1999. Global burden of Shigella infections: implications for vaccine development and implementation of control strategies. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1999, 77(8):651-666.

Mara D and Cairncross S, 1989. Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture and aquaculture, Geneva, World Health Organization.

Meybeck M, Chapman D and Helmer R, 1990. Global freshwater quality a first assessment, Oxford, Blackwell.

National Research Council, 1998. Issues in Potable Reuse: The Viability of Augmenting Drinking Water Supplies With Reclaimed Water, Washington, DC, National Academy Press.

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), 1995. Vad innehaller avlopp fran hushall? (Content of wastewater from households). Report 4425, Stockholm, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

Wolgast M, 1993. Clean Waters: Thoughts About Recirculation. Creamon, Uppsala.

Yuan, 1993. Etiological Study of High Stomach Cancer Incidence Among Residents in Wastewater Irrigated Areas, Environmental Protection Science, 1993, 19(1):70-73, in: World Resources Institute, A guide to the global environment: environmental change and human health, New York, Oxford University Press, p. 122.

Toilets/ latrines

Toilets in Uganda: IRIN site under Uganda: http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/archive/uganda.htm; The East African, 16 December 1999,

http://www.africanews.org/east/uganda/stories/19991216/19991216_feat30.html)

WHO, 1997b. Strengthening interventions to reduce helminth infections : an entry point for the development of health-promoting schools. Geneva, World Health Organization.

School children sharing toilets: http://www.africanews.org/east/uganda/stories/20000108/20000108_feat9.html ; IRIN, 14 Jan 2000,http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/tanzania/20000114.htm) Van der Ryn S, 1995. The Toilet Papers: Recycling Waste and Conserving Water. Sausalito, Ecological Design Press.

Trachoma

Mariotti S P, Pr?ss A. Preventing trachoma: a guide for environmental sanitation and improved hygiene/ Prévenir le trachoma: guide d'assainissement et d'hygiène. Geneva: WHO and International Trachoma Initiative, 2000.

Pruess A, Mariotti SP. Preventing trachoma through environmental sanitation: a review of the evidence base. Bulletin of the WHO, 2000, 78(2):258-266

Wastewater re-use

Health guidelines for the use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture, WHO Technical Report Series 778, WHO 1989.

Cifuentes E, Blumenthal U, Ruiz-Palacios G, Bennett S, and Quigley M, 2000. Health risk in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Central Mexico: perspectives for protection.

Mara D and Cairncross S, 1989. Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture and aquaculture, Geneva, World Health Organization.

World population and sustainable development United Nations Population Division, 2000. World Population Nearing 6 Billion Projected Close to 9 Billion by 50. New York, United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Internet communication of 21 September 2000 at web site http://www.popin.org/pop1998/1.htm).

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 1997. Population and sustainable development - Five years after Rio. New York, UNFPA, p. 1-36.

World Bank, 1993. World Development Report. Washington, DC, The World Bank.

WHO reports and collaborative reports (see also under specific topics) Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections, Technical Report Series 849, WHO 1995.

Food Safety Issues Associated with Products From Aquaculture, Technical Report Series 883, WHO 1999.

WHO 2001. The World Health Report 2001 - Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope. Geneva, World Health Organization.

WHO 2001b. Water for Health: Taking Charge. Geneva, World Health Organization.

WHO 2000. Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment. Geneva, World Health Organization.

WHO, 2000b. The world health report 2000 - Health systems: Improving performance. Geneva, World Health Organization.

WHO 1999. WHO Report on Infectious Diseases - Removing obstacles to healthy development. Geneva, World Health Organization.

WHO, 1997. Environmental matters, Strategy on sanitation for high-risk communities. Report by the Director-General. Executive Board, 101st Session, Provisional agenda item 12.3. Geneva, World Health Organization, (unpublished document EB101/19).

WHO, 1997b. Strengthening interventions to reduce helminth infections : an entry point for the development of health-promoting schools. Geneva, World Health Organization.

WHO 1996. Cholera and other Epidemic Diarrhoeal Diseases Control: Fact Sheets on Environmental Sanitation. Geneva, World Health Organization.

WHO 1995. Community water supply and sanitation: needs, challenges and health objectives. Report by the Director General. Forty-eighth World Health Assembly, Provisional agenda item 32.1. Geneva, World Health Organization, (unpublished document A48/INF.DOC/2).

WHO, 1995b. Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections, Technical Report Series 849, Geneva, World Health Organization. Winblad U, Vargas J, Simpson-Hebert S, Sawyer R, Rappaport R, Gough D and Esrey SA, 1998. Ecological Sanitation. Stockholm, Sida.

WHO, 1994. School Sanitation and Hygiene Education in Latin America. Summary report of a workshop on problems and options for improvement. Geneva, World Health Organization.

Mara D and Cairncross S, 1989. Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture and aquaculture, Geneva, World Health Organization.

Sanitation: Controlling problems at source: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7

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