Child and adolescent health
WHO encourages self-reliance of countries in conducting immunization through basic health services. It cooperates with UNICEF in its initiative of supplying vaccines to over 100 countries. Major priorities are to at least sustain the accomplishments of previous years and to continue to strive for achievement of the 1992 World Summit for Children goal of immunization against the six vaccine-preventable diseases (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, measles, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis).
In an effort to make the best use of limited resources to eliminate neonatal tetanus, WHO has given priority to countries that account for 80% of total cases and have an estimated mortality of 5 or more per 1 000 live births. WHO initiated a series of measures to arrest the spread of diphtheria in eastern Europe, including the formulation of a plan of action and the establishment of a European task force. In 1993 progress towards the poliomyelitis eradication goal was heartening. Efforts are being made to develop a more heat-stable poliovirus vaccine that can be delivered with a less rigorously maintained cold chain. Large donations for poliomyelitis eradication were coordinated with different organizations. In 1994 the region of the Americas committed itself to eliminating measles by the year 2000, and incidence is now at the lowest level ever. If the momentum is sustained the Americas may well lead the way towards global elimination of this major killer of children.
By the end of 1994 virtually all developing countries had implemented plans of action against diarrhoeal diseases in children. Nearly 42% of health staff in the countries had been trained in supervisory skills using materials developed by WHO, and almost 30% of doctors and other health workers had been trained in diarrhoea case management, many of them in the more than 420 diarrhoea training units established in over 90 countries. It is estimated that nearly 85% of the population of the countries had access to oral rehydration salts at the end of 1994. Particular emphasis is given to training in the management of acute respiratory infections WHO supports courses for workers in first-level health facilities and referral hospitals on standard case management, and distributes training and technical materials. More than 190 000 health managers, doctors, nurses and community health workers in over 60 countries have been trained so far. WHO is involved in numerous studies on acute respiratory infections in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
Activities for better nutrition are promoted in 62 countries, mostly in collaboration with FAO and UNICEF. A global database on child growth was established and more than 90 countries are receiving technical and financial support to give effect to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. The new WHO/UNICEF "baby-friendly hospital initiative" has proved hugely successful in encouraging proper infant feeding practices, starting at birth. It has already been implemented in two-thirds of African countries. A number of countries have introduced national nutrition policies with WHO support.
A wide range of WHO programmes focus on the needs of adolescents in such fields as nutrition, mental health, sexuality, disease and injury prevention, and substance abuse. A joint UNICEF/WHO/UNFPA policy statement on the reproductive health of adolescents was disseminated. WHO supported the formulation of policies on adolescent health in 20 countries.