Some of the causative agents, and diseases associated with them, include in chronological order of their identification:
- 1973: Rotavirus, a major cause of infantile diarrhoea worldwide.
- 1976: Cryptosporidium parvum, a parasite which causes acute and chronic diarrhoea.
- 1977: Legionella pneumophila, the bacterium which causes potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease.
- 1977: Ebola virus, which causes haemorrhagic fever - fatal in up to 80% of cases.
- 1977: Hantaan virus, which causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.
- 1977: Campylobacter jejuni, a bacterium which causes diarrhoea.
- 1980: Human T-lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-1), which causes lymphoma-leukaemia.
- 1982: Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain of bacteria, which causes bloody diarrhoea.
- 1982: HTLV-2 virus, which causes hairy cell leukaemia.
- 1983: Helicobacter pylori, the bacterium associated with peptic ulcer disease and stomach cancer.
- 1983: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS.
- 1988: Hepatitis E virus, which causes epidemics of jaundice in hot climates.
- 1988: Human herpesvirus 6, which causes fever and rash.
- 1989: Hepatitis C virus, which causes liver cancer as well as liver disease.
- 1991: Guanarito virus, which causes Venezuelan haemorrhagic fever.
- 1992: Vibrio cholerae O139, which causes epidemic cholera.
- 1994: Sabia virus, which causes Brazilian haemorrhagic fever.
- 1995: Human herpesvirus 8, associated with Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients.