The world health report

Chapter 4


Burden of disease and injury attributable to selected risk factors

The next sections of the chapter describe selected major health risk factors, grouped as follows: childhood and maternal undernutrition; other diet-related risk factors and physical inactivity; sexual and reproductive health; addictive substances; environmental risks; occupational risks; and other risks to health (including unsafe health care practices, and abuse and violence). Each risk is briefly described, along with its main causes, its extent in the world and what health problems it causes. The main results in terms of attributable mortality, years of life lost and DALYs as well as attributable fractions are summarized in Annex Tables 6--13. All these results should be considered in the context of likely uncertainty levels, indicated in the Statistical Annex Explanatory Notes.