Dual practice in the health sector: review of the evidence

Peer reviewed article


Paulo Ferrinho, Wim Van Lerberghe, Inês Fronteira, Fátima Hipólito, André Biscaia

Publication details

Number of pages: 17
Publication date: 2004
Languages: English


This paper describes the use of various means by civil servants to generate extra income, with special emphasis on dual practices. This paper also discuss what is meant by dual practice, develops a typology of dual practices, determines its prevalence and impact on personal income, the health care system and health status.

This paper also looks at the reasons why practitioners so frequently remain in public practice while also working in the private sector, and at contextual, personal life, institutional and professional factors that make it easier or more difficult to have dual practices and possible interventions to deal with dual practice. [Adapted from Abstract]