Changes in the way humans live and work, and the resurgence of mosquito vectors, particularly the Aedes aegypti mosquito (which spreads Zika, dengue fever and chikungunya), have raised the global risk of yellow fever. Two large yellow fever outbreaks in Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo are now under control but these are just warnings of bigger outbreaks to come if action is not taken.
A coalition of partners working to stop yellow fever outbreaks met in Geneva on 12 September 2016 to develop a new strategy - Eliminating Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE). This strategy aims to protect the populations most at risk, ensure a ready supply of yellow fever vaccine, build resilience in urban centres and prevent international spread.
16 August 2016 -- One of the largest emergency vaccination campaigns ever attempted in Africa started in Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo this week as WHO and partners work to curb a yellow fever outbreak that has killed more than 400 people and sickened thousands more.
The outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda have placed great demand on the global supply of yellow fever vaccines. The global stockpile of 6 million vaccines for emergency response (normally enough for a year) has already been replenished twice this year.
This timeline shows the demands on the global vaccine supply since early 2016.
The ongoing yellow fever outbreak in Angola is mostly in urban areas but at risk of spreading to other provinces and across borders to neighbouring countries. Extensive local transmission in the capital city Luanda, has prompted multiple vaccination campaigns in Angola as well as in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda.
Read WHO’s latest guidance on communication and social mobilization methods to conduct yellow fever vaccination campaigns. The guidance also provides information on the monitoring and evaluation of communication and social mobilization techniques. These 10 points from field experience are especially useful for district-level planning. The document is available in English, French and Portuguese. A Spanish version is also in a pipeline.
Yellow fever: Facts and challenges
How is yellow fever transmitted? Is there a vaccine? Why is an urban yellow fever outbreak such a concern? Dr Sylvie Briand, Director of Pandemic and Epidemic Diseases Department at WHO gives answers to these and other questions in this short, informative video.
- International Coordinating Group (ICG) on vaccine provision for yellow fever
Q&A: ICG on vaccine provision
- Q&A: Fractional doses of the yellow fever vaccine
Yellow fever vaccine supply in an emergency
Global vaccine stockpile in emergencies
- Yellow fever vaccine: a global partnership
Yellow fever vaccination booster not needed
Disease outbreak news
Information in Portuguese
Fact sheet: Yellow fever
Q&A: Yellow fever in Angola
Q&A: Yellow fever
- Timeline: Yellow fever outbreak 2016
- Feature: Mosquito-borne diseases
- Yellow fever strategy and activities
- The yellow fever initiative
Video: Yellow fever - facts and challenges
Yellow fever laboratory testing in Africa
Fractional dose yellow fever vaccine as a dose-sparing option for outbreak response
Strategic response framework for yellow fever
Communication and social mobilization in yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns
The Yellow Fever Initiative: providing an opportunity of a lifetime
Rapid ﬁeld entomological assessment during yellow fever outbreaks in Africa
Risk assessment on yellow fever virus circulation in endemic countries