Global Alert and Response (GAR)

First data on stability and resistance of SARS coronavirus compiled by members of WHO laboratory network

The below table provides the first compilation of data on resistance of the SARS Coronavirus against environmental factors and disinfectants. This information has been provided by Members of the WHO multi-center collaborative network on SARS diagnosis. More detailed information on methods utilized and material used is being compiled and will be available shortly. The major conclusions from these studies are:

Virus survival in stool and urine

  • Virus is stable in faeces(and urine) at room temperature for at least 1-2 days.
  • Virus is more stable (up to 4 days) in stool from diarrhea patients (which has higher pH than normal stool).
  • Disinfectants

    • Virus loses infectivity after exposure to different commonly used disinfectants and fixatives.

    Virus survival in cell-culture supernatant

    • Only minimal reduction in virus concentration after 21 days at 4°C and -80°C.
    • Reduction in virus concentration by one log only at stable room temperature for 2 days. This would indicate that the virus is more stable than the known human coronaviruses under these conditions.
    • Heat at 56°C kills the SARS coronavirus at around 10000 units per 15 min (quick reduction).

    Fixatives (for use in laboratories only)

    • SARS virus fixation (killing) on glass slides for immunofluorescence assays in room temperature does not kill virus efficiently unless the acetone is cooled down to -20oC.

      Lab*

      Substrate

      Initial viral count log10PFU

      Condition

      Survival time

      Method of testing viability

      GVU

      virus spiked in baby stool

      1.00E+03

      pH 6-7

      3 hr

      Virus isolation in cell culture

       

      virus spiked in normal stool

      7.50E+03

      pH 8

      6hr

      Virus isolation in cell culture

       

      virus in diarrheal stool

      7.50E+03

      pH 9

      4days

      Virus isolation in cell culture

      QMH

      stool

      1.00E+03

      Room Temperature

      at least 2 days

      Virus isolation in cell culture

       

      urine

      1.00E+03

      Room Temperature

      at least 24 hr

      Virus isolation in cell culture

       

      Virus culture medium+ 1% bovine serum

      1.00E+03

      on plastic surface in room temperature

      at least 2 days

      Virus isolation in cell culture

       

      Virus culture medium+ 1% bovine serum

      1.00E+04

      30-37°C

      at least 1hr

      Virus isolation in cell culture

       

      Virus culture medium+ 1% fetal calf serum

      1.00E+04

      56°C

      degration of titre over time (10 000 infectious virus units in 15 min)

      Virus isolation in cell culture

       

      virus in Acetone, 10% Formaldehyde and Paraformaldehyde, 10% Clorox, 75%ethanol, 2% phenol

      1.00E+06

      Room Temperature

      less than 5 min

      Virus isolation in cell culture

      NIID

      Virus culture+ 2% bovine serum

      1.00E+06

      minus 80°C

      at least 4 days

      Virus isolation and RT-PCR

       

      Virus culture+ 2% fetal calf serum

      1.00E+06

      4°C

      at least 4 days

      Virus isolation and RT-PCR

       

      Virus culture+ 2% fetal calf serum

      1.00E+06

      37°C

      less than 4 days

      Virus isolation and RT-PCR

       

      Virus culture+ 2% fetal calf serum

      1.00E+05

      56°C

      less than 30min

       

      UniM

      Virus culture

      1.00E+06

      4°C

      at least 21 days

      Virus isolation

       

      Virus culture

      1.00E+06

      minus 80°C

      at least 21 days

      Virus isolation

      CUHK

      • Virus in phosphate buffered saline (PBS)
      • Virus in sterilized stool

       

      9.00E+04

      Room Temperature on

      PBS Stool Virus isolation in cell culture

       

           
      plastered wall 24h 36h
      plastic surface 36h 72h
      formica surface 36h 36h
      stainless steel 36h 72h
      wood 12h 24h
      cotton cloth 12h 24h
      pig skin ≥24h ≥24h
      glass slide 72h 96h
      paper file cover 24h 36h

      CUHK Chinese University Hong Kong
      GVU: Government Virus Unit, Dept. of Health, Hong Kong, SAR China
      QMH: Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR China
      NIID: National Institute of infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
      UnivM: University Marburg, Germany

Share